1 May 2006

GI News—May 2006


In This Issue:

  • Food for Thought
    —Eating for Your Eyesight; 8 Tips for Making Your Eyesight Last
  • GI News Briefs
    —Slimmer But Not Healthier; What You Should Know About Low Carb Diets and Ketosis
    —Going with the Grain
    —By Bread Alone
  • GI Values Updates
    —Flour Power
  • Low GI Food of the Month
    —Dining Downunder™ Chef Vic Cherikoff Talks About Wattleseeds
  • Low GI Recipe of the Month
    —Vic Cherikoff’s Sweet Potato and Wattleseed Pudding
  • Success Stories
    —Cliff Shares His Secrets for Maintaining Tight Glycemic Control and Weight Loss
  • Profile
    —Dr Tom Wolever: ‘Research on the GI is very exciting; the more we explore, the more we discover. The health benefits are far-reaching: from diabetes risk reduction and management to long-term cardiovascular health ...’
  • Feedback—Your FAQs Answered
    —‘I have been low carbing (not excluding carbs all together, just switching to healthier ones) for over 3 years and have dropped my weight, cholesterol, triglycerides, blood pressure, etc. I appreciate that you don’t advocate a low carb diet – but where do you draw the line? How much carb is high, medium and low?’


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Food for Thought

Eating for Your Eyesight
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a progressive eye disease that affects the central macula of the eye, leaving sufferers with only peripheral vision. It is one is the most common causes of blindness in the over-50s in the Western world. As we age our risk increases: people in their 50s have around a 2% chance of suffering AMD which leaps to 30% by age 75. AMD Alliance International estimates that 25 to 30 million people are affected worldwide. It’s the macula (the central part of the retina where light sensitive cells send signals to the brain) that lets us to see fine detail and is critical to central vision helping us to recognise faces, drive a car, read a book or newspaper, or do close handwork. There’s no known cure. But there is something you can do.

'Just as there are optimum ways of eating for a healthy heart, liver, skin, brain and kidneys, so there is one for the eyes,’ says nutritionist Catherine Saxelby. ‘The nutrients in orange, green and yellow produce – all antioxidants that belong to a large family of more than 600 carotenoids –can slow the progression of AMD. So can dark leafy greens that are rich in lutein and zeaxanthin, and egg yolks.'

A new study just published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition in April suggests that a low GI diet should also be a key part of your AMD prevention plans.

‘The retina has among the highest supplies of blood and nutrients, including glucose, and is dependent on adequate glucose delivery from the systemic circulation to maintain its physiologic function. Because glucose stores in the retina are negligible, it appears that glucose metabolism is efficient in the retina’ writes lead author Chung-Jung Chiu from Tufts University. To evaluate the association between ARM (age-related maculopathy) and dietary carbohydrate, researchers from Tufts and Harvard Universities followed 526 women (1036 eyes) without previous ARM diagnosis from the Nurses’ Health Study over ten years using validated food frequency questionnaires that the women completed an average of four times.

What they found was that ‘when total carbohydrate intake was held constant, there was a more than two-fold higher odds for ARM in participants with dietary GI in the highest versus lowest third of the study sample.’ Dietary GI has to be seen as a new risk factor according to Chung-Jung Chiu, and concludes that ‘Although our data cannot establish that the observed association is causal, they indicate a new direction for further studies. The results of such studies may prove helpful in preventing or delaying the onset of ARM and its related disability and costs.’
Am J Clin Nutr 2006;83:880–6

8 Tips for Making Your Eyesight Last
Exactly what causes AMD is still not fully understood. But if you have a parent with AMD, you have a 50% risk of suffering from it yourself. Smokers have a four times greater risk than non-smokers, and those with high blood pressure, obesity or high cholesterol are also likely to suffer from it. Looking after yourself in your later years can have a significant impact on how long your eyesight lasts. According to Catherine Saxelby you should try to:

  1. Avoid smoking
  2. Maintain a healthy weight that's right for you – neither too fat nor too thin
  3. Eat large serves of dark green vegetables and salad leaves as often as you can
  4. Enjoy different coloured fruits and vegetables for natural antioxidants
  5. Make the switch to low GI carbs (the smart carbs)
  6. Use oils rich in monounsaturated fat (olive, canola) or polyunsaturated fat (sunflower, grapeseed); limit intake of saturated fats (dairy, takeaway, deli meats)
  7. Enjoy fish twice a week
  8. Stay active to help manage your blood pressure and cholesterol
– Catherine Saxelby: www.foodwatch.com.au

Catherine Saxelby

GI News Briefs

Slimmer But Not Healthier
Low carb diets promise (and deliver) rapid weight loss without hunger in the first and most restrictive phase of the diet. That’s why they are popular – everyone likes quick results. Within a few days the scales will show a real difference. But is there a health cost? To date, no low-carbohydrate intervention trials have been of sufficient duration to investigate long-term effects of low-carb diets. But a recent issue of the Lancet reports life-threatening complication that occurred in the short-term. A 40-year old obese woman who strictly followed the low-carb, high-protein Atkins diet for a month ate meat, cheese and salads, took the prescribed Atkins supplements and monitored her urine – all by ‘The Book’. She lost 9 kg in the first month at the end of which she was admitted to New York’s Lenox Hill Hospital intensive care unit with severe ketoacidosis – a condition that occurs when high levels of acids called ketones build up in the blood.

‘Ketones are produced in the liver whenever there is decreased insulin during starvation. A low-carbohydrate diet such as Atkins can lead to ketone production; in fact, the Atkins diet book recommends regular monitoring for ketonuria to confirm adherence to the diet … Our patient had an underlying ketosis caused by the Atkins diet and developed severe ketoacidosis, possibly when her oral intake was compromised from mild pancreatitis or gastroenteritis. This problem may become more recognised because this diet is becoming increasingly popular worldwide,’ say Tsuh-Yin Chen and co- authors.
Lancet: 2006 (vol 367, pp958)


Commenting in the Lancet, Lyn Steffen and Jennifer Nettleton from the University of Minnesota School of Public Health say: ‘Teaching at-risk individuals how to manage their weight in ways that are healthy and can be maintained for a lifetime is of utmost importance. Traditional and healthy weight-control practices include increasing physical activity and modifying dietary patterns, such as increasing intakes of wholegrain products and fruit and vegetables. Many longitudinal epidemiological studies have shown significantly lower risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, cancer, and other conditions associated with consumption of fruits, vegetables, and whole-grains; some of these foods are noticeably absent from the menu of low-carbohydrate diets.’ They conclude with the point that: ‘As researchers and clinicians, our most important criterion should be indisputable safety, and low-carbohydrate diets currently fall short of this benchmark.’
– The Lancet: 2006 (vol 367, pp880–1

GI Group: What You Should Know About Low Carb Diets and Ketosis
‘At all times, our bodies need to maintain a minimum threshold level of glucose in the blood to serve the brain and central nervous system,’ write Prof Jennie Brand-Miller, Kaye Foster-Powell and Joanna McMillan-Price in The Low GI Diet. 'If, for some reason, glucose levels fall below this threshold (a very rare state called hypoglycemia), the consequences are severe including trembling, dizziness, nausea, incoherent rambling speech, and lack of coordination. When necessary, the brain will make use of ketones, a byproduct of the breakdown of fat. In people losing weight on a low carb diet, the level of ketones in the blood rises markedly, a state called ketosis, which is taken as a sign of "success". The brain, however, is definitely not at its best using ketones, and mental judgement is impaired. Ketosis is a serious concern in pregnant women. The foetus can be harmed and brain development impaired by high levels of ketones crossing from the mother’s blood via the placenta. Because being overweight is often a cause of infertility, women who are losing weight may fall pregnant unexpectedly. Thus one of the very good reasons we advocate a healthy low GI diet in this context is that there are absolutely no safety concerns for mother or baby. Indeed, there is some evidence that a low GI diet will help mothers control excessive weight gain during pregnancy.' We’ve summarised all the benefits of The Low GI Diet over a low carb diet.

The Low GI Diet
You feel good, you can think straight
You lose fat, not water and muscle
You have energy for exercise
Low in saturated and trans fats
No concerns about safety in children
No concerns about safety in pregnancy
Benefits for mental function
Value-added benefits for long-term health

Low Carb Diets
You may feel headachy and light-headed
You lose fat, water and muscle
Insulin sensitivity is enhanced
Glucose tolerance worsens
You feel lethargic, exercise is tough
Unavoidably high in the bad fats
Immense concerns about safety in children
Immense concerns about safety in pregnancy
Decline in mental performance
Serious doubts about long-term safety

(The Low GI Diet is published by Hachette Livre in Australia and New Zealand, Hodder Mobius in the UK and Marlowe & Company in the US)

Going with the Grain
As we have said before, there are countless reasons to include more whole cereal grains in your diet, but it’s hard to go past the fact that you are getting all the benefits of their vitamins, minerals, protein, dietary fibre and protective anti-oxidants. Studies around the world show that eating plenty of wholegrain cereals reduces the risk of certain types of cancer, heart disease and type 2 diabetes. A new study published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition adds to a growing body of evidence. Our results ‘suggest a lower risk of diabetes and heart disease in people who consume diets high in wholegrains’ wrote lead author Majken Jensen from Aarhus University Hospital and Harvard School of Public Health. In this joint Danish-American cross-sectional study, the researchers analysed diet records (assessed by a 131-item food frequency questionnaire) and took blood analyses of 468 men and 473 women to measure intake of whole grains, bran and germ to markers of glycemic control, blood lipids, cholesterol, and inflammation. ‘Compared with participants in the lowest intake group, participants in the highest intake group had lower concentrations of homocysteine, insulin, C-peptide, and leptin. Inverse associations were also observed with total cholesterol, HDL (good) cholesterol, and LDL (bad) cholesterol,’ reported Jensen. No link was observed between the intake of wholegrains and markers of inflammation.
AJCN (vol. 83 pp 275–83)


GI Group: Don’t make the mistake of equating wholegrains with low GI (indeed most wholegrain breakfast cereals and breads have a high GI). You get double the benefit if your wholegrains are also low GI.

By Bread Alone
Back in July 2005 GI News, we reported on Dr Allison Hodge’s study that found that ‘the simple change from white bread to lower-GI bread within a high carbohydrate diet could reduce the risk of diabetes.’ For many people, just swapping bread type ‘may be a more acceptable dietary change than one requiring a whole new eating pattern,’ concluded the researchers who had followed the diets and health records of more than 36,000 men and women in Australia for four years. A small Swedish cross-over study of seven women with impaired glucose tolerance and a history of gestational diabetes published in the European Journal of Clinical Nutrition highlights the real and immediate value of making the switch. ‘A combination of low GI and a high content of cereal dietary fibre has a beneficial effect on insulin economy in women at risk of developing type 2 diabetes,’ wrote lead author Dr Elin Ostman. For the study, the women were given either a specially baked low GI bread that was rich in dietary fibre or high GI, low fibre bread during two consecutive 3-week periods separated by a 3-week washout period. The results were unanimous. Lowering the GI and increasing dietary fibre ‘improved insulin economy as judged from the fact that all women lowered their insulin responses to the intravenous glucose challenge’ wrote Ostman.
EJCN (2006) 60, 334–341


GI Values Update

Flour Power
Flour is one of the main foods that has the potential to raise our blood glucose. Though you may think you don’t eat much of it, remember it’s the main ingredient in bread, crackers, biscuits, muffins, cakes and most breakfast cereals. We know from our testing so far that all these foods are top of the pops in raising blood glucose. So, the race is on to develop a flour with low GI power.


A new variety of barley, BARLEYmax,™ a hull-less barley with a unique starch profile is looking promising. Developed by Australia’s CSIRO, BARLEYmax™ was used in a recent trial to produce a low GI breakfast cereal. The test food was a typical extruded breakfast flake made with wholegrain barley flour. The BARLEYmax™ flake had a GI of 50 compared with the same product made with conventional barley wholegrain flour (GI 77). The GI testing was in vivo with 30 participants.

Business Manager Geoff Ball says ‘CSIRO identified the genetic basis of barley’s nutritional properties with the goal of developing a barley variety with significantly improved nutritional properties. BARLEYmax™ not only showed it can be used to produce low GI versions of typical popular breakfast cereals, but it is rich in cholesterol lowering soluble fibre, and has high levels of insoluble dietary fibre and resistant starch. The wholegrain flour can also be used to make breads, muffins and other bakery goods, and in taste tests to date, consumers have given the flavour the thumbs up.’

It’s still early days, so don’t go looking for products made from BARLEYmax™ in the marketplace yet. But watch this space. The CSIRO is expecting that the first commercial crop will be harvested in October 2006. We’ll keep you posted when the products using BARLEYmax™ wholegrain flour have been GI tested and are in the supermarket.
– For more information, contact geoff.ball@csiro.au

Low GI Food of the Month

Dining Downunder™ Chef Vic Cherikoff Talks about Wattleseeds
‘In September 1984, I was roasting the seeds from four or five wattle (acacia) species for the University of Sydney’s Human Nutrition Unit, where I was researching the nutritional value of the traditional foods eaten by Australia’s Aboriginal people. Women from various communities in Central Australia sent me the raw seeds and I prepared them for eating as traditionally as possible of course. And then (untraditionally) the phone rang …

Vic Cherikoff

Australia’s Aboriginal people were hunters and gatherers and the women spent much of the day (in a very relaxed manner) foraging for fruits, nuts, seeds, and insects and hunting the smaller animals. We now know that this traditional bush food diet contained all the nutrients for good health and are learning more about the impressive nutrient density of many of them. When it came to the edible species of acacia, the women usually collected fully ripe, dry seeds in coolamons or bark dishes. They added hot coals to the dish to ‘parch’ the seeds and make them easier to mill into a coarse meal, which they baked into seed cakes. For our research at the university, we also made a ‘bread’ with toasted and milled seeds that would be as similar as possible to their seed cakes. It was not only very nutritious – it had a low GI (GI 11.)


What does wattleseed ‘bread’ taste like? It depends on the species of acacia used. Over the years, I have tried around 14 different wattleseed cakes. Some were very oily with a fragrant flavour almost like a spiced, gluten-free bread; some were more like a plain damper or unleavened bread made from barley; and others came closer to buckwheat, quinoa and other grain breads.

… But, back to the seeds roasting in my pot in Sydney. By the time of got off the phone, they looked very roasted indeed. I let them cool, popped them into an electric coffee bean grinder and gave them a spin to see how they ground up. Well! The aroma! Coffee, chocolate, hazelnut, toasty, roasted flavour which was just superb. I ground the over-roasted seeds up more and then tried the dark brown, coffee-like grounds in my stove-top cappuccino machine. As the rich extract poured through, I tried it black and then with milk, which I much preferred and with a topping of frothed milk, the world's first Wattleccino™ was born. It was delicious with the milk bringing out a sweetness in the wattleseed.

How can you use wattleseed?

  • If you make your own bread, try a substituting some of the wheat flour with 5% besan or chick pea flour along with 3% wattleseed.
  • Use wattleseed as a crusting or coating mixed with polenta, crushed macadamia nuts or cracked buckwheat over any meat or poultry.
  • Add wattleseeds to casseroles, lentil spreads, meatloaf for a nutty, roasted flavour.
  • Try a baked sweet potato (kumara), mushroom and wattleseed risotto or pilaf
  • Replace some of the flour (about 3%) with wattleseed when baking – muffins, banana bread, pancakes and other appropriate baked items.
  • Use wattleseed extract in frappes, smoothies and juices.
  • Substitute coffee with wattleseed (or use half and half) in a Wattleccino™ or Wattlatté™ .
  • Boil wattleseed in water and store the mixture in the refrigerator, adding a dash of the liquid and some of the grounds to muesli, porridge and breakfast cereals.
Check out Vic’s website (www.cherikoff.net) for more ideas for using wattleseed and wattleseed extract in your cooking.

When can you buy wattleseed?
Wattleseed and wattleseed extract are available in specialty stores such as the Essential Ingredient in Australia, Surfas Restaurant Supply in LA in the US and from ISPC International in Europe or easiest of all, get some online from Vic’s website at www.cherikoff.net as it gets shipped globally.

www.glycemicindex.com: New Values Posted
Mountain bread (oat) GI 76
Kipfler potato (boiled) GI 91

Low GI Recipe of the Month

Vic Cherikoff’s Sweet Potato and Wattleseed Pudding
For lovers of pumpkin pie, here’s a whole new taste sensation. Vic uses standard measuring cups for his recipes. If you don’t have a set, use a teacup/coffee mug that holds 250 ml or 9 fl oz liquid exactly.


Makes 10 portions

2 tablespoons macadamia nut oil
3/4 cup brown sugar
2 teaspoons wattleseed
2 x 60 g (2 oz) eggs
4 cups mashed sweet potato
1/4 teaspoon salt (optional)
1 teaspoon baking powder
1/2 cup (125 ml/4 fl oz) reduced fat milk
2 teaspoons wattleseed extract
½ cup roughly chopped walnuts

  • Grease a 5 cm high x 20 cm square (2-inch by 8-inch) baking dish or 10 small individual ramekins. Preheat oven to 180°C (350°F) degrees.
  • Cream the macadamia oil, sugar and wattleseed, add the eggs and mix in well.
  • In a separate bowl, mix the mashed sweet potatoes, salt and baking powder. Add the potato mixture to the wattleseed mixture and mix well. Gradually add the milk to the mixture, add the wattleseed extract and the chopped nuts.
  • Pour the mixture into the baking dish and bake in a moderate–hot oven for about an hour or until done. If you use individual ramekins it may cook a little faster than this.
Nutritional analysis per serving
881 kJ, 10 g fat, 5 g protein, 25 g carbohydrate, 3 g fibre, low GI

Your Success Stories

Cliff Shares His Secrets for Maintaining Tight Glycemic Control and Weight Loss
‘My low and good quality fat, medium protein, high carbohydrate and low GI diet have proved invaluable in helping me maintain tight glycemic control and long term weight loss for some years. I now weigh 93 kg—down from 118 kg back in 1980 when I was 40.

I took early retirement about 12 years ago for health reasons and because I knew that I needed to make some real lifestyle changes if I was going to have a life. Before that I had worked as an actuary, which is a very high pressure, demanding job. At 46 I was diagnosed with diabetes, some three years later I had a mild heart attack, and in 1995 I needed to take insulin to manage my diabetes. 1997 was my landmark year. I had successful six-artery bypass surgery and learned how to manage my diet using GI.

When I started using the low GI approach, the first thing I had to learn was not to focus on the GI alone but to use it as a carbohydrate selection tool in meal preparation and when shopping (where label reading is of paramount importance). Memorising which of my regular basic foods are low GI is very useful for me, as I do not have to look up the GI & GL tables very often. Also I find it essential to count my daily fat and carbohydrate intake using a simplified ‘portion’ unit method, as I must not only monitor my GL but also my total energy intake.

What works best for me is to have six small meals daily, each with two or three carbohydrate portions, depending on my BGL two hours after the previous meal and current level of physical activity. (I know that this is very compulsive. But it works for me as a disciplined daily routine, which does not unduly inhibit my quality of life). Equally important is for me to average at least one hour’s walking, or equivalent exercise, daily.

To ensure good mid morning BGL readings, I find it necessary to confine breakfast to two pieces of low GI fruit, rather than higher energy density cereal and milk with the same carbohydrate content – I eat bread and cereal later in the day when my insulin resistance is lower and I am consequently more at risk of having a ‘hypo’.

I average five or six pieces of fruit per day (at the risk of having too little bread and cereal!). And have a large plate of microwaved vegetables (mainly home grown) and side salad as part of the normal evening (fifth) meal, which is usually the only one including meat or seafood. My weekly main meal goal is: 30% seafood; 30% vegetarian; 30% poultry, pork, veal and game meat; and 10% other red meat.

Portion control is an ongoing challenge, as is insidious non hungry eating (I suffer from binge eating syndrome), especially in the evening.

From my experience, I must concede that my program would be rather difficult to maintain fully if still working full time in a demanding stressful job. Being retired makes life much easier for a diabetic. But I am well and managing well. I have no serious diabetic complications – no eye or renal problems, my heart health is stable and the main problem I have is moderate peripheral neuropathy. Just for the record: my HbA1c is now 6.1, triglycerides 1.3, cholesterol – total 3.4, HDL 1.1, LDL 1.7, and VLDL 0.6.

Send Us Your Success Story!
success story

GI Profile

Prof Tom Wolever
Tom Wolever is a name you’ll see on many research papers involving the glycemic index. In fact his name is on the first paper ever published about slow-release carbs. GI News asked Prof. Wolever how he became involved in research in this area.

Tom Wolever
Tom Wolever

‘Research on the GI is very exciting – the more we explore, the more we discover. The health benefits are far-reaching: from diabetes risk reduction and management to long-term cardiovascular health. The power to improve health through informed nutritional choices is very rewarding.’

Before completing medical school, I was involved in the development of the concept of slow-release carbohydrate and the glycemic index with Dr David Jenkins and his research team, including his wife, Alexandra, playing a major role in the data analysis for the first paper on GI published in 1981. (Jenkins DJA, Wolever TMS, Taylor RH, Barker HM, Fielden H, Baldwin JM, Bowling AC, Newman HC, Jenkins AL, Goff DV. ‘Glycemic index of foods: a physiological basis for carbohydrate exchange.’ Am J Clin Nutr 1981;34:362-366)

Throughout my career I’ve had a special interest in diabetes. My research has been focused on the role of dietary carbohydrates in human nutrition and metabolism, with particular interests in insulin resistance and diabetes. It probably all started after grade 12, when I went to the UK as an exchange student, and to Oxford University to study medicine where I discovered that many of my friends helped to make ends meet by being ‘research subjects’. I joined them, at first doing breathing experiments, then donating blood for Dr David Jenkins.

I took a year off from medical studies to do an MSc on the effects of dietary fibre on blood glucose responses under the supervision of Dr Jenkins. As part of my research, I was involved in designing the first study that showed the ability of fiber to reduce blood glucose and insulin responses is related to its viscosity. We also conducted the first successful study using purified fiber supplements (guar) to treat diabetes mellitus. After completing medical school (and continuing to perform research in my spare time), I joined Dr. Jenkins at the University of Toronto to complete my PhD – on the glycemic index.

In 1995, my wife Judy and I founded an independent company to facilitate commercial food testing and research. Just to show how life goes in a full circle – Dr Alexandra Jenkins, along with Dr Vlad Vuksan, is now our partner in the expanded Glycemic Index Laboratories, and we continue to work closely with David Jenkins and his team at the University of Toronto. It is my continued pleasure to collaborate with the University of Sydney’s Jennie Brand-Miller both on research papers and in the advocacy and promotion of the benefits of GI.

I love the research with which I am involved. But just as we must all strive for balanced diet, I also think it’s important to have a balanced life. I enjoy spending time with my wife, Judy, and our three children. In fact, I have just returned from a two-week bike trip around Wales with my 15-year-old son. I also make time for involvement in church activities, fitness, and competing in my favourite sport, orienteering.

Tom Wolever is full Professor in the Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine at the University of Toronto, a member of the medical staff at St. Michael’s Hospital in the Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, President of Glycemic Index Laboratories, and is an active volunteer for the Canadian Diabetes Association.

Feedback—Your FAQs Answered

I have been low carbing (not excluding carbs all together, just switching to healthier ones) for over 3 years and have dropped my weight, cholesterol, triglycerides, blood pressure, etc. I appreciate that you don’t advocate a low carb diet – but where do you draw the line? How much carb is high, medium and low?

We believe that the type or source of the carbohydrate and fat are more important than the amount. In the end the choice of how much carbohydrate is up to the individual. A moderate carb diet would be around 40–50% of energy intake as carbs; and high over 50% of energy intake as carbs. Here’s what Prof Jennie Brand-Miller and her co-authors say in The Low GI Diet.

In 2002, the National Institute of Health (NIH) in the USA advised that a range of carbohydrate intakes could adequately meet the body’s needs while minimising the risk of disease. Specifically, they advised the following ranges:

45–65% OF ENERGY

25–35% OF ENERGY

15–35% OF ENERGY

We like these figures because they allow for individual tailoring. The American Heart Association even ruled that as little as 40% of energy intake as carbs could be eaten and still be good for the heart. Chances are your diet already falls within these flexible ranges and, if so we encourage you to stick with what you have. If your preference is for more protein and more fat than you are currently eating, then go ahead—just be choosy about quality. We believe that you are the best judge of what you can live with for the rest of your life and, anyway, there is plenty of room for flexibility. We recommend you consume at least 130 grams of carbohydrate a day, even during active weight loss. Whatever the number, the type of carbohydrate is important. And that’s where the GI comes to the fore.’
The Low GI Diet is published by Marlowe & Company in the US; Hachette Livre in Australia and New Zealand and Hodder Mobius in the UK.

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